Slug Bait – Metaldehyde vs Iron Phosphate

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Robert Pavlis

How do you get rid of slugs? I’ve looked at a number of home remedies and although some work a bit, most don’t work at all. The most effective way to get rid of slugs is to use a chemical slug bait. Slug baits contain both food for the slug and a poison that kills them.

There  are two main classes of baits; Metaldehyde and Iron Phosphate. There is a lot of controversy about which should be used. Which is safer for the environment? Which is more effective? The short answers given by many web sites are not telling the whole story.

Slug Bait - Metaldehyde vs Iron Phosphate
Slug Bait – Metaldehyde vs Iron Phosphate

Metaldehyde Slug Bait

Metaldehyde is the older slug bait and has been used for many years. It has a good track record for being effective at killing slugs and snails, but it is also toxic to cats, dogs, birds and other mammals. It can even harm children if ingested, but it does not harm bees or aquatic life.

The reported death of birds was due to eating the pellets, not the affected slugs (ref 3).

The original formulation combined metaldehyde with grain flour to make small pellets that slugs find tasty. Pellets work better than liquid products but they don’t work at low temperatures or high humidity. It is degraded by sunlight and is easily washed away with rain and irrigation.

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The active ingredient, metaldehyde, has a short half-life in soil and is not considered harmful to the environment. It should not be used in contact with vegetable crops.

Soon after eating metaldehyde, the slug becomes paralyzed and starts excreting large amounts of mucus. Over many hours they die from dehydration. In cold weather the effect can wear off before the slug dies.

Some formulations include carbaryl to increase the range of pests that are controlled. Unfortunately this also kills beneficial insects like ground beetles that eat small slugs and eggs. It is best to avoid such products.

Bitrex and Metaldehyde

In an effort to make metaldehyde safer, a chemical called bitrex is usually added to the product. According to the Guinness World Records, this is the bitterest substance know. It makes the pellets very bitter and animals tend no to eat them. Bitrex is also added to many household cleaners to prevent accidental ingestion by children.

Provided the product includes bitrex it should be safe for animals. I looked at several slug products available online and most don’t advertise the inclusion of bitrex, but the SMDS usually mentions it.

Iron Phosphate Slug Bait

In an effort to produce a safer slug bait companies started formulating iron phosphate into pellets that also contained a grain flour that attracted the slugs. Since iron and phosphate are natural chemicals found in the environment, organic farming regulators approved the product for use.

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Iron phosphate is more effective than metaldehyde at lower temperatures, but is easily washed away with rain or irrigation.

This bait does not paralyze the slug, so they crawl away to a hiding place and take several days to die. Because gardeners never see dead slugs it is hard to know if the product is working.

Chelated Iron Phosphate

In an effort to make iron phosphate a more effective molluscicide, a chelated form of the product was created. The chelating chemical is usually EDTA.

Iron phosphate is quite safe for the environment, but EDTA has some issues. Most websites still claim that iron phosphate is perfectly safe since it is natural and organic, but they ignore the EDTA component which is common in many slug baits these days. EDTA Iron phosphate has harmed dogs that ate the bait (ref 2).

Which Molluscicide is More Effective?

The answer to this depends on the environmental conditions at the time of application, the species of slug and the exact formulation of the product.

In general it seems that iron phosphate is less effective than Metaldehyde, which less effective than chelated iron phosphate (ref 1, 3, 5). But either form of iron phosphate is more effective at low temperatures and in high humidity. Unlike metaldehyde, iron phosphate can be safely used around vegetable crops.

The reported effectiveness depends on how you interpret the results. For example, ref 5, compared an application rate of 1.5 g/m2 (5% metaldehyde) to a rate of 5 g/m2 (1% iron phosphate), applied as per manufacturers instruction. Metaldehyde killed more slugs, but the amount of chemical applied was also higher. Do you compare the weight of product added, or the amount of active ingredient used? Any claims that one product is better than the other needs to be closely examined.

Reference 5 looked at three different species, and found that one was unaffected by iron phosphate, but was killed by metaldehyde.

Although cost for the home gardener is not going to be a significant factor, metaldehyde is the cheapest option.

Which Molluscicide is Safer?

Iron phosphate without EDTA would be the safer product to use, but it is also the least effective one. Metaldehyde that contains betrix is almost as safe and is more effective.

Claims that iron phosphate EDTA products are natural and harmless to animals is clearly not true. They may in fact cause more harm than metaldehyde that contains betrix.

Effect on Earthworms

Neither metaldehyde nor iron phosphate affect earth worms. However, EDTA iron phosphate is toxic to them (ref 4).

The immediate reaction to this might that we should stop using EDTA and protect the earthworm which so many consider important for the garden. That may be a valid point, but remember that the earthworm, at least in North America, is an invasive species that is starting to have detrimental effects on our native woodlands. From an environmental perspective it is hard to support any idea that saves non-native earthworms.

If EDTA affects earthworms, it might also affect other native worms – we don’t really know.

References:

1) Slugs, Snails and Iron Based Baits; http://www.regional.org.au/au/asa/2001/6/c/young.htm

2) Toxicity in Dogs After Ingesting EDTA Iron Phosphate; http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bpl/avj/2009/00000087/00000007/art00011

3) Less Toxic Iron Phosphate Slug Bait Proves Effective; http://extension.oregonstate.edu/gardening/node/995

4) Toxicity of Metaldehyde and Iron Phospahte to Earthworms; https://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~soilecol/Full%20articles/2008/Crop%20Protection%2028.pdf

5) Field Tests With a Molluscicide Containing Iron Phosphate; http://www.stadtoekologie.ch/publi/speiser_cropro2002.pdf

 

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Robert Pavlis

I have been gardening my whole life and have a science background. Besides writing and speaking about gardening, I own and operate a 6 acre private garden called Aspen Grove Gardens which now has over 3,000 perennials, grasses, shrubs and trees. Yes--I am a plantaholic!

34 thoughts on “Slug Bait – Metaldehyde vs Iron Phosphate”

  1. I need to comment here. They now add EDTA to the supposed “pet safe” slug baits. The Older metaldehyde baits with bitrex killed FAR LESS wildlife. Of course, many states made that illegal. The new, supposedly ‘safer’ bait takes 5-6 DAYS to kill slugs and snails if it even does, but it kills plenty of snakes, ground beetles, and other creatures that eat slugs. The old bait made the slugs secrete a ton of mucus and get stiff and dead within hours so it killed less wildlife. It’s all a scam. The new, supposedly ‘safer’ stuff may not kill Fido but it kills other beneficials who don’t KNOW the slugs are poisoned because… no bitrex and the slugs take so long to die. Don’t use the new baits. I always hid the old bait under pieces of bark and such… never killed birds. I’m so disgusted because you can;t get the old school stuff anymore. All you can get is this slow killing crap that does more harm – plus the EDTA is toxic to worms and it is in every single slug bait you can buy. You can still occasionally find the old stuff, mainly on ebay. You will get price gouged badly. All of this because it is ‘discontinued.’ I think we all should write to Ortho/AKA Scott’s – the manufacturer of the old Bug-Geta and Bug-Geta plus, and ask them to stop making the sulphur stuff and make the old formula again. Perhaps with enough requests….
    their toll free number is 877-220-2089

    Reply
    • I am sure it also works. There is some concern about using EDTA in soil, but I would guess the amounts added as a slog bair would be too small to cause concern.

      Reply
    • ferric sodium EDTA is toxic to earthworms. It also kills the slugs so slowly that it ends up killing MORE wildlife since they can’t tell the slugs have been poisoned, it takes so many days to a week for them to even die, IF they do die. So the ‘cure’ is worse than the ‘poison.’ Avoid EDTA! My frustration with all this ‘pet safe’ bait is, it doesn’t work and it killed all my garter snakes and ground beetles. The old more toxic stuff killed fast and effectively and nothing would eat the slugs since the bait had added bitrex. It’s all a big scam and they illegalized the old formulas. We need to bring them back IMO. there are safe ways to use the baits, such as under pieces of bark or cardboard where birds and other creatures can’t get to it.

      Reply
  2. After using a ferric phosphate based molluscicide for the first time this year I was very dissatisfied with the results. The potted plants and those grown in open soil suffered significant damage. I have had to resort to after-dark inspection and using the scissors (secateurs) treatment! I found a metaldehyde based product very effective and reliable over many years use.

    Reply
  3. Hello folks, My name is George Baker and I have be doing research on mollusks for 35 years.I am one of the owner of Orcal the largest producer of slug and snail baits in North America. .Orcal inc. in Oregon was just granted a new Bait ( EPA approval) that we have been working on sense 2001… It is classified as a bio pesticide. We produce 16 brands and 3 different active ingredients…This new product is a non toxic game changer for the industry and home Gardeners…I liked the article and thought it was well written and accurate.

    Reply
      • Hi Robert
        I live in Switzerland and I tried those nematodes almost 20 years ago in my vegetable garden. They are quite tedious to use. You have to disperse them when there is a rainy period and when it is not too hot. You also have to mail-order them on time. They do not kill the big slugs (Arions). Also they are quite expensive, as they are needed in high doses (500’000/m2) so they cost about 0.7 Eur/m2 per treatment. They only work well against the small species. They are really not very effective against the big Arions (see this paper https://academic.oup.com/mollus/article/68/1/25/1078506?login=false)
        The best method to fight slugs is in my experience to kill them whenever you see one, then come back the next day to kill the one who feed on their “colleagues” (many slugs are cannibals). As a preventive measure I disperse methaldehyde pellets close to the hiding places of the slugs.
        Works quite well for me.
        Cheers
        Roland

        Reply
  4. The link to your reference 4 is broken but I think this is the same paper? https://www.researchgate.net/publication/238088550_The_relative_toxicity_of_metaldehyde_and_iron_phosphate-based_molluscicides_to_earthworms

    In this paper they used 5x the recommended dose before the lost in weight became apparent and no worms died even with high dose. Basing from that data, I think if used properly iron phosphate+EDTA should still be relatively safe. What do you think?

    Reply
  5. Well I saw a video on a gardening programme about two brothers whose garden business sold nothing but hostas. Any gardener will tell you that slugs and snails absolutely LOVE hostas. They sprayed their hostas regularly with garlic water and all the hostas (hundreds of them) has NO SLUG DAMAGE. It works as I tried it BUT if it rains you need to respray with garlic water. It’s the best natural method and all it involves is boiling 4 or five roughly chopped garlic cloves, cool and then put water into a spray bottle and spray all parts of affected plants.

    These brothers had their hundreds of hostas under cover so they only had to spray weekly.

    Reply
    • Spraying weekly means boiling a garlic soup weekly. If you ar are an OAP, that might be an option.
      I got rid of the slugs (and I mean those ones ( https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_slug) with the following method:
      1. When there is “slug weather” I patrol the garden and look out for them pests.
      2. If I see one, I cut in half with my secateurs. This is the most honest way of killing slugs in my view.
      3. The next morning I visit the ” kill zones” again, and you will most likely find so “mates” who eat their “colleagues”, because they are cannibals. It really pullls them. So I cut the “feasters” too.
      4. And the next day I watch the “kill sites” again. For as long as there is “slug weather” forcast, I am vigilant.
      5. As a preventive measure i scatter slug baits (methaldehyde based ones, because ferric sulfate is nowhere as efficient) close to the the hiding places of the slugs (shady places in shrubs an borders)

      I started this four years ago. Since then my hostas have no slug damage. I live in a rather rainy part of Switzerland.

      Reply
  6. Hi
    I too battle the slug. I tried beer baits but too much time and beer. I noticed they seem to favour a hosta plant yellow centre/green edges, may be “Island Breeze”. I started harvesting the leaves and putting them amongst my beens. I collected many slugs this way . I went out early in the am , collected the slugs and dispatched them. Totally organic! I have dried the leaves and await spring to see if they still work. Hope this helps.

    Reply
  7. Can anybody tell me how long did it took you to make your garden 100% slug free?
    I am planning to remove all the weeds and grass and most of the plants from my garden, remove every hiding place possible, and lay baits in each and every corner. After which I will try to remove weeds before they can grow, avoid dense and low plants, and try not to create any potential hiding areas for the slugs.
    Will this help me to become 100% slug free?
    Also, some people say that sprinkling salt around your garden will kill all the slugs. Is it a good idea to sprinkle around salt in my garden after removing all the weeds, grass and many of the plants from my garden?

    Reply
    • Late but for anyone considering this: slugs always will be moving around, so there’ll always be new ones coming into your garden. They also hide underground so you can’t practically remove all hiding spots. Finally, anyone who cooks can attest to how easily salt dissolves in water, so there is no way a sprinkle of salt will stop anything. Table salt is also toxic to plants, so don’t put it in your garden.

      Reply

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