The horticulture industry is being blamed for depleting peat reserves and environmentalists are calling for a stop on using peat for growing plants. What are the peat moss alternatives? Is there a suitable substitute?
The horticulture industry would have no problems switching to another product instead of peat. After all, most gardeners are quite aware of the importance of preserving our environment. In this post, I will look at several peat moss alternatives to see if there is a viable option.
Status of Global Peatlands
In my last post, The True Story of Peat, I reviewed the facts about peatlands and the use of peat. It is quite clear that peatlands are not in danger of being depleted. Quite the opposite, 86% of the global peatlands are untouched by humans. We have vast peat reserves and nature is making peat far faster than we are using it for horticulture.
The majority of peatland loss is due to agriculture and forestry. Horticulture uses a fraction of one percent of the total peat harvested each year. Horticulture is not the problem but we should always look at ways to reduce our environmental footprint.
Peat – the Perfect Product for Growing Plants
Peat and especially peat moss is the perfect medium for growing plants in pots. It has a high pore volume, holds moisture and air well, has a stable structure and the low pH is easily adjusted. It is relatively inexpensive and free of contaminates such as seeds, pests and diseases.
It contains active microbes that slow down the spread of disease better than other heat treated substrates (ref 1).
Peat moss is a natural organic product that is both acceptable to organic gardeners and adds no contamination once added to the garden.
An alternative product needs to meet most, if not all, of these conditions and it must have a lower impact on the environment.
Responsible Use of Peat
It is common to throw out statements such as “there are many alternatives to peat” but these statements mean very little unless the specific application is also specified. Before I look at peat alternatives, it is important to look at how peat is used in horticulture. Different applications can make use of different alternatives.
Peat as a Mulch
Peat can be used as a mulch in gardens but it dries easily and is then blown away by wind. Several other products like aged manure, compost, and wood chips provide a much better alternative to peat for this application.
Peat moss is ideal for germinating seeds and growing seedlings. Its porosity makes it easy for young roots to penetrate and the anti-fungal properties help control infction. The relative amount of peat used for this application is very small and finding an alternative will have little impact on the environment. Keep using peat moss for seeds.
Peat has been a traditional additive for increasing the organic matter in soil, which in turn helps with drainage and improves soil structure.
This application uses large amounts of peat and does not make good use of peat’s special properties because any organic material will work just as well. Since we produce lots of waste organic matter, finding an alternative is easy. Manure, compost, and leaf mold all work as well as peat and should be available from local sources. There is no good reason for homeowners to use peat for amending soil.
Commercial industries, making products like triple mix, use large quantities of peat and they might have trouble sourcing enough organic matter, but that problem can be solved with better management of waste organics. Agriculture and golf courses also use a lot of peat – they may have the same problem.
A lot of horticulture peat is used for growing plants in pots and containers. The rest of this blog will focus on this application.
Peat Moss Alternatives for Potting Medium
The environmentalists say something like “There are many alternatives to peat moss, some of which are cheaper (often free) and may work better. In fact, the use of peat in horticulture is almost completely unnecessary.” The general population is starting to believe this story as well, but if we are talking about growing media as the application, it is a myth.
The search for an alternative to peat has been going on for some time, and the search continues. Nothing has been found that works as well as peat moss for a potting medium. Some products work in certain situations, but not others. Others products come close to being an alternative, but require the user to change their horticultural practices. That can be done in a nursery where they grow a lot of the same plants, but it is not a good solution for the homeowner who does not understand what changes they need to make for each plant they buy.
Roger Williams, head of science at the Royal Horticultural Society, which has been looking for alternatives for quite some time, said: “The bottom line isn’t whether peat free products are better or worse, but whether people can handle them in the same way. When you use peat free alternatives you have to be more careful in how you water plants. Peat is very forgiving and you can get away with quite a bit of under or over watering. But the alternatives are more vulnerable to waterlogging, and if they dry out they can become unusable.”, (ref 6).
Some products now offer a mix of peat and other alternatives. The main reason for this is that the alternatives just don’t measure up and can’t replace peat entirely.
Lets look at some alternatives that may be suitable on a commercial basis.
Wood products usually consist of partially decomposed waste wood and can include wood fiber, composted bark, sawdust or wood (ref 2). These products have good drainage and low pH, but they require a higher nitrogen fertilizer than peat.
Wood products are usually inexpensive if they are made from locally sourced waste wood. One problem with wood is that the material is not consistent from batch to batch and you have no idea what chemicals might be included with the waste wood. In some cases, products are now made from trees harvested specifically for the purpose. That is probably not more environmentally friendly than using peat.
Anthony Witcher, a horticulturist at the USDA Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory has this to say about the wood option, “Commercially, I think we could switch to 50 percent wood in our growing media. It could be an even higher ratio, but I think growers would have to address such issues as crop fertilizer and irrigation needs due to the reduced nutrient and water-holding capacity.” In most cases, a wood based medium would still contain a significant level of peat. (ref 7).
In Ontario, I am finding more and more landscape trees being sold in media that includes wood.
Yard Waste Compost
Municipalities and private companies are making compost from yard waste and industrial organic material ( sugar cane fiber, olive and grape mash, rice and peanut hulls, cotton gin waste (ref 3)).
The resulting product may be seed free depending on the process and material used, and it usually has a low level of disease spores, but it is not sterile as some people claim.
Compost has a high nutrient level, making it unsuitable for pot culture on its own. It needs to be mixed with something else so that the compost level is no more than 30% (ref 2).
Composted Municipal Sewage Waste
Composted sewage waste, provided it is free of heavy metals, could be a suitable additive to potting media, but it is not accepted by the general population as a safe product. Even if it was accepted, this nutrient rich compost could only be used for a portion of the media and not as an alternative to peat moss.
Biochar is a product that is produced by heating organic matter to high temperatures (300-500°C) in the absence of oxygen. The result is a very stable form of carbon (ref 4).
Biochar has been tested as an agricultural additive to soil and has shown mixed results (ref 3). Because of this and regulatory issues, commercial biochar is not readily available.
Even if further testing is positive it will probably only play a minor role in media as an additive.
Paper and Cellulose
A few products have been introduced to the market that are made from recycled paper and cellulose. Little scientific research has been done on them.
I contacted Pittmoss, one company that has been in the news a lot recently and asked for copies of scientific studies that compared their product to peat. They were unable to send any and none exist on their website.
Live Sphagnum Moss
The best peat for horticulture comes from sphagnum moss bogs. The sphagnum moss grows in the bog and accumulates over time forming peat moss. Over the last 15 years a number of studies have looked at the moss itself and found that it works just as well as peat moss, and in some cases it is even better (ref 5).
The harvested live plants, called sphagnum biomass, is a good alternative to peat, but it is not readily available. To change this, work has been done on developing sphagnum moss farming, where fields of sphagnum moss are grown specifically for harvesting. One of the ideal places to grow this moss is on old peat fields that have already been used to harvest pest. This has several environmental benefits. When water is returned to these fields to grow the moss, they stop producing CO2. Moss farming also uses land that is unsuitable for many other purposes.
Sphagnum farming is very new and can’t be considered an alternative at the moment, but long term, it might turn out to be the best alternative.
The video below shows a system for harvesting live sphagnum peat moss.
If the above video does not run try: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIcMr8u1B5U
Coir is made from the husk of coconuts and is the waste product remaining after the coconut is harvested. It comes close to having the same properties as peat moss. Many people now claim that it is the ideal alternative to peat moss, but is this just another myth? I will have a closer look at coir in my next post.
- Envoronmentally-friendly Alternatives to Peat; http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c08/e3-04-06-06.pdf
- Royal Horticuture Society – Peat-free Growing Media; https://www.rhs.org.uk/Advice/Profile?pid=441
- Growing Substrates Alternative to Peat for Ornamental Plants; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281064937_Growing_Substrates_Alternative_to_Peat_for_Ornamental_Plants
- Biochar – A Home Gardener’s Primer; http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/FS147E/FS147E.pdf
- Sphagnum Farming in Germany; http://mires-and-peat.net/media/map13/map_13_08.pdf
- Millions of Gardeners to be Banned From Using Peat; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/gardening/article-1339563/Millions-gardeners-banned-using-peat-protect-Britains-bogs.html
- Is Wood a Viable Media Component?:http://www.greenhousegrower.com/production/media/is-wood-a-viable-media-component/
- Photo source: