In my last post What is Organic Fertilizer I explained why the nutrients in organic fertilizer and synthetic fertilizer are the same. Plants can’t tell the difference between the two because there is no difference. However, organic fertilizer is better for the garden. In this post we will look at why this is true.
What is Organic Fertilizer?
An organic fertilizer is one that is composed of organic material. Manure, compost, and blood meal are good examples. Each of these contains complex organic molecules like protein, carbohydrates, fat, DNA etc. It is the existence of these large complex organic molecules that is so important.
Slow Release Fertilizer
When organic fertilizer is added to your garden it acts just like a synthetic fertilizer. The available nutrients leach out fairly quickly into the soil. Plants can start using them immediately. The amount of available nutrients in organic fertilizer is low, making organic fertilizer a poor choice if you need to get a lot of nutrients to your plants quickly. Synthetic fertilizer is much better for a quick feed if you need the higher levels of nutrients.
In a healthy garden a quick feed is never needed, but it might have some benefits in a vegetable garden where you want things to grow quickly. Personally, I have not worried about a quick feed even in the vegetable patch.
After a few weeks of leeching nutrients, the ‘available nutrients’ are gone and that is when the real magic starts to happen. The microbes in the soil (bacteria, fungi, algae) start to eat the organic matter. During the digestion process large organic molecules are converted into smaller nutrient molecules.
This is a slow process and will continue for many years. For example in the case manure and compost, nitrogen is released for at least 4 years. This steady release of nitrogen is a result of microbes eating and digesting large molecules like protein and DNA that contain nitrogen atoms, and converting them into nitrates which plants can use.
Think of organic fertilizers as slow release fertilizers. The organic component is slowly converted to nutrients by the soil microbes and other life living in soil. Synthetic fertilizers are unable to do this – their nutrients are used up fairly quickly and provide no long term food for microbes.
Have you ever gone into mature woods and dug around the soil? If not you really should do this. The soil there is black and friable (crumbly). It is easy to dig because it has great soil structure. This soil structure is built up over a long time and it is maintained by the microbes in the soil that digest the organic matter, mostly leaves, that cover the ground each fall.
When you add organic fertilizer to your garden you mimic the process taking place in the woods. Microbes eat, poop and die. The dead microbes and microbe poop, I call that ‘microbe juice’, are critical for building soil structure. Think of microbe juice as being a slimy, sticky material like honey. This ‘goo’ sticks together the clay, sand and silt particles in soil to form larger particles called aggregates. Aggregates are the reason soil is friable. Aggregates allow lots of air and water into the soil, and give roots a perfect place to grow.
Microbes are responsible for building soil structure, ie making your soil better. The organic matter added to the garden is the food source for the microbes.
The real benefit of organic fertilizer is that, over time, it builds soil structure.
Are All Organic Fertilizers Equally Good?
The answer is no. The real value in organic fertilizer is not the level of available nutrients. The real value is the long term feeding of microbes, and the slow release of nutrients. A good organic fertilizer is one that contains a lot of large organic molecules that are not yet digested.
Manure is perfect. It has both available nutrients for a quick feed and lots of undigested organic material for the long term care of the microbes.
Compost is also good, but some of the digestion of organics is already done. It was done in the compost pile, and not in the soil that needs to be improved. Compost is not as good for your garden as manure.
Hay, straw and weeds are also good organic fertilizers for the long term. They have almost no available nutrients for a quick feed, but they contain lots of organics for the long term.
Fertilizers that are mostly water based such as fish emulsion, and manure tea may provide a few nutrients immediately, but they provide almost nothing for long the term. They are not a good source for slow release nutrients and they don’t build soil structure because they don’t contain any significant organic matter to feed the microbes. For this reason I would not even consider them ‘organic’, although most people do. Think of them as weak synthetic fertilizers. These extractions of organic material will not improve soil structure or provide nutrients for the long term.
1) Photo Source: slimmer_jimmer