Growing Subshrubs Like Lavender and Russian Sage

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Robert Pavlis

Go into any nursery and try to find lavender and Russian sage; they will be in the perennial section. Check these plants online or in books, and most sources will tell you they are perennials. Lavender and Russian sage are subshrubs, a fancy name for a small shrub. Once you understand they are NOT perennials, they become easy to grow.

Lavender - a common subshrub
Lavender – a common subshrub

What is a Subshrub?

Subshrubs are short shrubs. They have a woody base that is similar to a tree – think single woody trunk reaching the ground, where roots develop. The term is used for a number of plants, like lavender, that tend to have a woody bottom with a more  herbaceous-like top. Unlike most shrubs, the herbaceous top does not harden off before winter and true dormancy is never reached. Because of this, the top part is susceptible to frost damage.

Unlike perennials, subhrubs have a single stem and root system, making them difficult to divide. Attempts at division usually result in death of all sections of the plant. I’ll discuss propagation methods below.

Examples of Subshrubs

Here is a list of some of the more common subshrubs.

Deerwood (Lotus scoparius)

English Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)

Heather (Calluna and Erica)

Lavender (Lavandula)

Lavender cottons (Santolina chamaecyp­arissus)

Oregano (Origanum vulgare, Origanum rotundifolium)

Periwinkle (Vinca)

Rock Rose (Helianthemum alpestre)

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)

Russian Sage (Perovskia atriplicifolia)

Sage (Salvia officinalis, Salvia elegans)

Sunset Hyssop (Agastache rupestris)

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)

Wormwood (Artemisia species)

Subshrubs in Cold Climates

In cold climates, the top herbaceous part can be killed off in winter. In my zone 5 garden the top is almost always killed to some extent. The amount of damage depends very much on how cold it gets and how much snow we have. With enough snow cover, the parts under snow can survive quite well.

Building Natural Ponds book, by Robert Pavlis

This presents a problem for the gardener. In spring, you will have no idea how much of the stems have been damaged, and new buds will only form on undamaged stems. Buds also tend to develop more easily on younger wood. For these reasons you should not prune back the shrubs until you see the new growth.

Russian sage - a common subshrub
Russian sage – a common subshrub

Subshrubs in Warm Climates

In warm climates subshrubs tend to grow all year long and can be pruned any time. It is best to prune them after flowering.

High temperatures and too much humidity can make it difficult to grow some types. Check with local sources to see which varieties grow best in your climate.

Cutting Back Early Bloomers

Some subshrubs bloom earlier in the year; lavender for example. These can be cut back right after flowering by deadheading and shaping them a bit. Always leave several green leaves on each stem so they can continue to grow and develop buds.

Late bloomers should not be cut back.

Pruning Subshrubs

It is important to prune your subshrub at least once a year to keep it compact and prevent it from getting too leggy.

Because gardeners in cold climates do not know which buds are killed it is best to wait until spring so that you can see the new buds growing. As soon as you see them, you can prune back to a point so that at least some green buds remain.

Plant Science for Gardeners by Robert Pavlis

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If you cut below the live buds, some subshrubs will form newer buds lower down, but many will just die.

Lavender tends to only make buds higher up on newer wood. Russian Sage seems to always have buds at ground level.

One of the main reasons people have trouble growing lavender is improper pruning.

Propagating Subshrubs

Old lavender bush showing the leggy, leafless lower stems, subshrub, by Robert Pavlis
Old lavender bush showing the leggy, leafless lower stems, by Robert Pavlis

Since subshrubs get woody at the bottom and new buds develop mostly higher up on the plant, they get taller each year and after a few years they start looking very leggy with most of the green showing above dead-looking stems. To look their best they need to be re-newed every 4-5 years.

One option is to remove them and buy new plants – but where is the fun in that?

A second option is to propagate them buy taking cuttings. Early summer cuttings usually work best. This is a standard process that can be used for all kinds of perennials and woody plants.

Last year this was a tall leggy plant which was hilled up, in spring, with soil. A year later it is now ready for dividing, subshrub, by Robert PavlisA year later it is now ready for dividing.
Last year this was a tall leggy plant which was hilled up, in spring, with soil. A year later it is now ready for dividing, by Robert Pavlis

A third option is to propagate them by hilling. In spring, cover the old plant with soil so that the new buds are showing just above the soil (picture on the left). Leave them like this for the summer. By the following spring, each stem will have made new roots in the hilled-up soil. The whole plant can now be dug up, divided, and each rooted stem can be planted to produce a new plant. This method does take time, but is very easy and successful.

These plants can also be grown from seed, but seed will not come true. Each seedling will be different from the parents, and in most cases they will be inferior to the parents. It is best to use one of the other methods if you have named clones.

This clump of lavender consists of several plants that were rooted by the hilling method two years earlier. It is now3.5 ft across and ready for a spring pruning, by Robert Pavlis
This clump of lavender consists of several plants that were rooted by the hilling method two years earlier. It is now3.5 ft across and ready for a spring pruning, by Robert Pavlis


  1. Photo credit for Russian sage; Robert Lyle Bolton
  2. Photo credit for lavender; Chris Gin


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Robert Pavlis

I have been gardening my whole life and have a science background. Besides writing and speaking about gardening, I own and operate a 6 acre private garden called Aspen Grove Gardens which now has over 3,000 perennials, grasses, shrubs and trees. Yes--I am a plantaholic!

8 thoughts on “Growing Subshrubs Like Lavender and Russian Sage”


  2. Will Russian Sage grow under a shag bark Hickory tree. The tree is quite old and doesn’t have much of a canopy & the sage would be facing south for sun. Wasn’t sure how tolerant the sage is.

  3. thank-you- this explains why I my lavender plants always die in the spring after I have pruned them! I will be less aggressive this year. I might also try the hilling method because they are getting long & scraggily ( thus the pruning!).

  4. Robert – I had a friend who had trained at Kew. His answer to dividing lavenders was to stomp on the center with his large booted foot, thus breaking apart the branches at the stem. He then hilled and waited for roots to grow. I always thought it a bit of a violent practice, but it worked for him! Thanks for the discussion on subshrubs! Sharon in Milwaukie, Oregon


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